Electric vehicles are often referred to as electric automobiles, electric motor cars, and Electric Motors. There are different types of electric vehicles. The working of electric vehicles has a complete zero non-polluting emission (ZEV).
Electric cars have been helping in decreasing the pollution levels but have also improved the health and environmental condition as a whole for the world.
The market for Electric Vehicles in India is increasing at a profound rate with major players like Toyota and Tesla looking to set up production facilities in the country for their stable of electric cars and vehicles.
Earlier this year, Tesla CEO Elon Musk had reportedly intended on starting Electric Cars production in Indian from 2019. The company is currently in talks with the Indian Government. MG (Morris Garages) has already started the sales of its Electric cars range in India with the latest being the MG Gloster equipped with amazing features and a car running on electricity.
Taking inspiration from these examples, in this article, we will be focusing on what Electric vehicles are and more importantly the “types of electric vehicles” that are present currently.
|ELECTRIC VEHICLE||FUEL CONSUMPTION VEHICLE|
NO TAILPIPE EMISSIONS/ENTIRELY CLEAN
POLLUTION/ GREENHOUSE GASES
2 CENTS PER MILE
12 CENTS PER MILE
MORE TIME TO CHARGE
LESS TIME TO REFUEL
100+/ MILE RANGE
300+/ MILE RANGE
NO NOISE POLLUTION
MORE NOISE POLLUTION
Electrical Vehicle Technology [Explained]
In an electric vehicle, there is a battery instead of a petrol tank, and an electric motor in place of an Internal Combustion engine. Going green is not the only motive behind electric vehicles or their only USP.
Nowadays, EVs are coming up with high technology that helps you to be efficient and save energy as well. You can even charge your EV at home if you have a charging port installed and will end up saving a lot of round trips to the charging or petrol station.
Regenerative braking is a technology that has changed the way we see energy being produced. So using regenerative braking your electric vehicle will be producing energy whenever you pull the brakes on your vehicle. Amazing, isn’t it?
Types of Electric Vehicles present
There are primarily three types of electric vehicles in the market known as Hybrid electric cars, Plug-in Electric, and Plug-in hybrid cars.
PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES
These vehicles get all their power from electric charging sources such as wall sockets or rechargeable battery packs. They are also known as grid-enabled vehicles and electrically chargeable vehicles.
They won’t need fuel or petrol hence produce the least amount of emissions. Sales in mass production for plug-in vehicles with the introduction of the Nissan Leaf in 2010. They produce little to no polluting emissions for the benefit of the environment.
They have caused low dependence on petroleum for the future and might also reduce greenhouse gas emission significantly in the coming years.
Hybrid vehicles work using both the Internal Combustion Engine and an electric motor. One can switch between them according to their need and choices at the click of a button.
These vehicles are charged using regenerative charging. The extra power that the electric motor provides is used in terms of a smaller engine. This kind of car is best for people who don’t want to sacrifice performance with fuel efficiency.
COMPONENTS IN A HYBRID VEHICLE
The auxiliary battery starts the car before the traction battery takes over.
- DC/DC CONVERTOR
This Converter converts higher DC voltage to Lower DC voltage from the traction battery.
- ELECTRICAL GENERATOR
This generator generates energy from the rotating wheels while braking and transfers it back to the traction battery.
- ELECTRIC TRACTION MOTOR
The traction motor takes the battery from the traction battery to get the wheels of the vehicle working.
- EXHAUST SYSTEM
This is used to exhaust out the emission gases from the vehicle.
- INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
Here the fuel is combined with air and the mixture is ignited using spark plugs.
- POWER ELECTRONICS CONTROLLER
This electronic controller controls the flow of electrical energy, the traction motor, and other components used.
- THERMAL SYSTEM
The thermal system has the work to control the temperature range of all the components.
- TRACTION BATTERY PACK
The traction battery pack has the stored electricity for use by the traction motor once the car starts.
Transfers the mechanical energy from the motor and engines to drive the vehicle.
You can find the list of Top 5 brands to choose a Hybrid Electric Vehicle, in our blogs section.
Plug-in hybrid vehicles have gasoline engines combined with a rechargeable battery and an electric motor. As rechargeable batteries produce less pollution than only gasoline ones, therefore these vehicles are an environment-friendly and safer source of vehicles.
Emissions are produced by plug-in hybrids only while running on fuel and not on electricity. They are still coming out in the market as a new technology, but are the most promising types of the electric vehicle as they are considered to produce very low carbon emissions.
These vehicles normally would run by electric motors but if you run out of charge they would switch to fuel for the car to run. Some electric vehicles also turn to the hybrid mode as soon as they reach the highways, say above 60-70 miles/hour. Charging the battery might take time, but 80% of the battery’s capacity gets filled within 30 minutes.
Using regenerative braking, electric vehicles convert the loss of energy during brakes to usable energies and store them in the batteries. In these types of electric vehicles, small engines can be used without affecting the performance or the efficiency of the vehicle.
One of the factors that will be affecting the carbon emissions would be where the electricity coming from, is it from nuclear and hydroelectric power plants or coal power plants.
Due to such high technology, it is being developed with Plug-in hybrid vehicles that would have high prices for the ownership of the vehicles but low prices would be spent on fuel consumption.
Therefore these vehicles would be a great investment in the coming years.
The future is expected to be more environmentally friendly across multiple industrial straits owing to the current climatic conditions and the call for positive change on the global level.
Electric vehicles as an idea are promoting this initiative by offering alternative sources of locomotion. Clean sources as well which leave a positive footprint on the global climate and also reduce the carbon footprint and emissions that have caused waste to the purity of the environment around us.
As a result of their capability, Electric vehicles are the most sought-after option in the automotive industry and it is now worth US$133.46 billion and is growing at a CAGR rate of 21-22% over the next decade to reportedly become a trillion-dollar domain by the end of this decade (2027 – US$802.8 billion reported). Close to 26 million units of Electric cars are expected to be sold by 2030.
It’s time now to think “How do I learn about EV?” rather than “Is learning about EV beneficial? There is no better time than today to start learning about this great technology which has the potential to drive all future businesses.
Electric Vehicles as of now is not included as any subject in any of the Engineering Course Curriculums but there are ample courses available online on Electric Vehicles.
Make sure that the course you take up will cover all the topics in-depth and give you hands-on experience on various technologies used in Electric Vehicles.
All the Best!